In all cases we first need a phylogram that we want to time-calibrate or at least make ultrametric to use in downstream analyses that require ultrametricity. As we assume that our phylogeny is very large it may for example have been inferred by RAxML, and the branch lengths are proportional to the probability of character changes having happened along them. For present purposes I have used a smaller tree (actually a clade cut out of a larger tree I had floating around), so that I could do the calibrations quickly and so that the figures of this post look nice. My example phylogram has this shape:
We fire up R, load the ape package, and import our phylogeny with read.tree() or read.nexus(), depending on whether it is in Newick or Nexus format, e.g.
mytree <- read.tree("treefilename.tre")Now to the various methods.
I have previously done a longer, dedicated post on this method. I did not, however, go into the various models and options then, so let's cover the basics here.
Penalised Likelihood (PL) is, I think, the most sophisticated approach available in APE, allowing the comparison of likelihood scores between different models. It is also the most flexible. It is possible to set multiple calibration points, as discussed in the linked earlier post, but here we simply set the root age to 50 million years:
mycalibration <- makeChronosCalib(mytree, node="root", age.max=50)We have three different clock models at our disposal, correlated, discrete, and relaxed. Correlated means that adjacent parts of the phylogeny are not allowed to evolve at rates that are very different. Discrete models different parts of the tree as evolving at different rates. As I understand it, relaxed allows the rates to vary most freely. Another important factor that can be adjusted is the smoothing parameter lambda; I usually run all three clock models at lambdas of 1 and 10 and pick the one with the best likelihood score. For present purposes I will restrict myself to lambda = 1.
Let's start with correlated:
mytimetree <- chronos(mytree, lambda = 1, model = "correlated", calibration = mycalibration, control = chronos.control() )When plotted, the chronogram looks as follows.
Next, discrete. The command is the same as above except for the text in the model parameter. The branch length distribution and likelihood score turned out to be very close to those for the correlated model:
Finally, relaxed. Very different branch length distribution and a by far worse likelihood score compared to the other two:
I have only considered testing a strict clock model with chronos for the first time today. It turns out that you get it by running it as a special case of the discrete model, which by default is set to assume ten rate categories. You simply set the number of categories to one:
mytimetree <- chronos(mytree, lambda = 1, model = "discrete", calibration = mycalibration, control = chronos.control(nb.rate.cat=1) )In my example case this looks rather similar to the results from correlated model and discrete with ten categories:
The problem with PL is that is seems to be a bit touchy. Even today we had several cases of an inexplicable error message, and several cases of the analysis being unable to find a reasonable starting solution. We finally found that it helped to vastly increase the root age (we had played around with 15, assuming that it doesn't matter, and it worked when we set it to a more realistic three digit number). It is possible that our true problem was short terminal branches.
PL is also the slowest of the methods presented here. I would use it for trees that are too large for Bayesian time calibration but where I need an actual chronogram with a meaningful time axis and want to do model comparison. If I just want an ultrametric tree the following three methods would be faster and simpler alternatives. That being said, so far I had no use case for them.
A superseded but fast alternative: chronopl()
This really came as a surprise as I believed that the function chronopl() had been removed from ape. I thought I had tried to find it in vain a few years ago, but I saw it in the ape documentation today (albeit with the comment "the new function chronos replaces the present one which is no more maintained") and was then able to use it in my current R installation. I must have confused it with a different function.
chronopl() does not provide a likelihood score as far as I can see, but it seems to be very fast. I quickly ran it with default parameters and lambda = 1, again setting root age to 50:
mytimetree <- chronopl(mytree, lambda = 1, age.min = 50, age.max = NULL, node = "root")The result looks very similar to what chronos() produced with the (low likelihood) relaxed model:
Various parameters can be changed, but as implied above, if I want to do careful model comparison I would use chronos() anyway.
Mean Path Lengths
The chronoMPL() method time-calibrates the phylogeny with what is called a mean path lengths method. The documentation makes clear that multiple calibration points cannot be used; the idea is to make an ultrametric tree, pick one lineage split for which one has a credible date, and then scale the whole tree so that the split has the right age. Command is simply:
mytimetree <- chronoMPL(mytree)The problem is, the resulting chronogram often looks like this:
Most of the branch length distribution fits the results for the favoured model in the analysis with chronos(), see above. That's actually great, because chronoMPL() is so much faster! But you will notice some wonky lines in particular in the top right and bottom right corners of this tree graph. Those are negative branch lengths. Did somebody throw the ancestral species into a time machine and set them free a bit before they actually evolved?
Some googling suggests that this happens if the phylogram is very unclocklike, which, unfortunately, is often the case in real life. That limits rather sharply what mean path lengths can be used for.
The compute.brtime() function
Another function that I have now tried out is compute.brtime(). It can do two rather different things.
The first is to transform a tree according to what I understand has be a full set of branching times for all splits in the tree. The use case for that seems to be if you have a tree figure and a table of divergence times in a published paper and want to copy that chronogram for a follow-up analysis, but the authors cannot or won't send it to you. So you manually type out the tree, manually type out a vector of divergence times (knowing which node number is which in the R phylo format!), and then you use this function to get the right branch length distribution. May happen, but presumably not a daily occurrence. What we usually have is a tree for which we want the analysis to infer biologically realistic divergence times that we don't know yet.
The second thing the function can do is to infer an ultrametric tree without any calibration points at all but under the coalescent model. The command is then as follows.
mytimetree <- compute.brtime(mytree, method="coalescent", force.positive=TRUE)It seems that the problem of ending up with negative branch lengths was, in this case, recognised and solved simply by giving the user the option to tell the function PLEASE DON'T. I assume they are collapsed to zero length (?). My result looked like this:
Note that this is more on the lines of "one possible solution under the coalescent model" instead of "the optimal solution under this here clock model", so that every run will produce a slightly different ultrametric tree. I ran it a few times, and one aspect that did not change was the clustering of nearly all splits close to the present, which I (and PL, see above) would consider biologically unrealistic. Still, we have an ultrametric tree in case we need one in a hurry.
It is well possible that I have still missed other options in APE, but these are the ones I have tried out so far.
Something completely different: non-ultrametric chronograms
Finally, I should mention that there are methods to produce very different time-calibrated trees in palaeontology. The chronograms discussed in this post are all inferred under the assumption that we are dealing with extant lineages, so all branches on the chronogram end flush in the present, and consequently a chronogram is an ultrametric tree. And usually the data that went into inferring the topology was DNA sequence data or similar.
Palaeontologists, however, deal with chronograms where many or all branches end in the past because a lineage went extinct, making their chronograms non-ultrametric and look like phylograms. And usually the data that went into inferring the tree topology was morphological. This is a whole different world for me, and I can only refer to posts like this one and this one which discuss an R package called paleotree.
There also seems to be a function in newer APE versions called node.date() which is introduced with the following justification:
Our software, node.dating, uses a maximum likelihood approach to perform divergence-time analysis. node.dating is written in R v3.30 and is a recent addition to the R package ape v4.0 (Paradis et al., 2004). Previously, ape had the capability to estimate the dates of internal nodes via the chronos function; however, chronos requires ultrametric trees and is thus unable to incorporate information from tips that are sampled at different points in time.This suggests that the point is the same, to allow chronograms with extinct lineages, but in this case aimed more at molecular data. Their example case are virus sequence data.